Table of Contents

Introduction xi
1. Superpower or Balkanized War Zone? 1
2. Overview of European Invention of Races 8
Western Academic Constructions Lead to Violence 8
3. Inventing the Aryan Race 12
Overview of Indian Impact on Europe:
From Renaissance to Racism 15
Herder’s Romanticism 18
Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel (1772–1829) 19
‘Arya’ Becomes a Race in Europe 22
Ernest Renan and the Aryan Christ 23
Friedrich Max Müller 26
Adolphe Pictet 27
Rudolph Friedrich Grau 28
Gobineau and Race Science 29
Aryan Theorists and Eugenics 31
Chamberlain: Aryan-Christian Racism 32
Nazis and After 34
Blaming the Indian Civilization 35
4. Imperial Evangelism Shapes Indian Ethnology 37
Biblical Theory of Race and the Myth of Ham 39
William Jones Maps Indians onto Biblical Ethnology 42
One Hundred Years of British Indological Institutions 48
5. Lord Risley Morphs Jati-Varna into Race 51
Building on Max Müller’s Work 52
Risley’s Race Science 54
Risley Freezes the Castes 56
Ambedkar Demolishes Nasal Index Racism 60
6. Inventing the ‘Dravidian’ Race 61
Hodgson Invents ‘Tamulian’ 63
Caldwell: Transforming Linguistics into Ethnology 64
A Conspiracy Theory is Born: Cunning Aryan
Brahmins Exploited Innocent Dravidians 66
De-Indianizing the Tamil Traditions 67
7. Dravidian Racism and Sri Lanka 79
Outdated Geology Mixes with Theosophical Fantasy 81
Lemurian Origins Linkup with Bishop Caldwell 83
Theosophy – Buddhism Uses Aryans to
Counter Evangelism 85
Clash of Colonial Constructs: Aryan-Buddhist-Sinhalese
vs. Dravidian-Saivite-Tamil 86
8. Digesting Hinduism into ‘Dravidian’ Christianity 88
The Myth of St Thomas 89
Evangelism and the Dravidian Movement 91
Christianizing Hindu Popular Culture 111
9. Propagation of ‘Dravidian’ Christianity 125
2000: Seminar on ‘Dravidian Religion to 127
Eradicate Casteism’ 127
2001: India Declared the Mother of 127
International Racism 127
2004: ‘India is a Dravidian Christian Nation,
and Christians Made Sanskrit’ 129
2005: New York Conference on Re-imagining
Hinduism as St Thomas Dravidian Christianity 129
2006: Dravidian Christianity Becomes an
International Movement
2007: Second International Conference on the
History of Early Christianity in India 139
2008: First International Conference on the
Religion of Tamils
Christian-Dravidianism vs Modern Archeology 148
Assessing the Robustness of the Thomas Myth 149
Dravidian Spirituality as Interim Stage for Christianizing 150
10. Dravidian Academic-Activist Network Outside India 154
Oxford-Yale Origins of the Dravidian Linguistic Canon 157
Academic Discourse Drives Indian Politics: Annadurai 160
SARVA Project and Identity Politics 162
Academic Support for Tamil Separatist Conferences 166
The Berkeley Tamil Chair 167
Europe-based Tamil Studies 170
11. Western Discourse on India’s Fragments 173
Deconstructing India Systematically 177
Atrocity Literature as a Genre 182
Atrocity Literature Feeds India’s Fragmentation 185
Indian Minorities Serving the Global Majorities 189
Identity Faultlines for Western Intervention 193
12. The Afro-Dalit Movement 196
Aryan/Dravidian and Hutu/Tutsi Parallels 197
American History Defines the Afro-Dravidian Movement 200
Western Government-Church Axis influences
Afro-Dravidian-Dalit 207
Ramayana interpreted as a Racist Epic 209
13. India: A Neo-Con Frontier 212
Corporate Multinationals to Convert Hindus 213
Dalit Activism by the American Christian Right 220
Right-wing Think-tanks and Policy Centers 234
Sustained and Biased Perceptions 240
14. India: A Left-wing Frontier 247
Example of Left-Right Collaboration in Washington 249
US-based Academic Deconstruction of India 251
Islamic Tint in the Secular Lens 266
15. The US Government’s Direct Involvement 268
International Religious Freedom Act 268
US Commission on International Religious Freedom 271
Pew Trust Repackages and Spreads:
‘India is Next Only to Iraq’ 283
US Government Agency for International
Development (USAID) 285
Obama and US Foreign Evangelism 287
16. British Intervention in Present-day India 297
Anti-India Axis in the UK 299
17. Continental European Interventions 307
Affiliates of Dalit Dissent in India 317
Network of Academic Dalit Studies 321
Individual Scholars Propagating Dalit Separatism 327
18. India’s Christian Umma 334
US-based Expansion of Indian Christianity 337
Christian Media 356
Intelligence-gathering Operations 363
Effects on the Ground 370
19. India in the Clash of Civilizations 377
The Cover Map 378
Maoist Red Corridor Through India 380
Nagaland Model in Nepal and India’s Red Corridor 381
Islamic Slice of Dravidistan 394
Tamil Nadu 397
Kerala 400
Abdul Nasser Madhani, Godfather of south Indian Jihad 401
Tamil Nadu–Kerala Jihad Nexus 404
Madhani Released and Jihad Outsourced to Kerala 405
Karnataka 407
New Developments in 2010 411
Appendices 423
Appendix A: A Short History of Racism from the
Nasal Index to the Y-Chromosome 425
Appendix B: Ancient Tamil Religion in Sangam Literature 431
Appendix C: Parallel Developments in Africa 438
Appendix D: Thomas Hoax on Native Americans 449
Appendix E: Papers Presented at New York
Conference 2005 451
Appendix F: Case of the Disposable Epigraphist 459
Appendix G: Monitoring Foreign Funds 463
Appendix H: Lutheran World Federation Targets India 467
Endnotes 476
Glossary 551
Bibliography 560
Index of Schematic Diagrams and Figures 621
Acknowledgments 625
Index 626